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An estimated 45 percent of Turks have circumvented the Internet blocks, at one time or another, by using a virtual private network VPN.

The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart , and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart. Turkey has adopted the principle of the separation of powers.

In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. The independence and organisation of the courts, the security of the tenure of judges and public prosecutors, the profession of judges and prosecutors, the supervision of judges and public prosecutors, the military courts and their organisation, and the powers and duties of the high courts are regulated by the Turkish Constitution.

According to Article of the Turkish Constitution, the organisation, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law.

In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts and Military Courts.

Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system.

Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command and agencies, all acting under the command of the Prime Minister of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs.

According to figures released by the Justice Ministry , there are , people in Turkish prisons as of November , a doubling since In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy.

Turkey became one of the first members of the Council of Europe in , applied for associate membership of the EEC predecessor of the European Union in and became an associate member in After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in , became an associate member of the Western European Union in , joined the EU Customs Union in and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in , with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia , [] thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey.

However, in , Turkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan a Turkic state in the Caucasus region during the Nagorno-Karabakh War , and it remains closed.

The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.

The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country.

However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament.

Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location.

Turkey supported the coalition forces in the First Gulf War. In the Global Peace Index , Turkey ranked th out of countries in the world, mainly because of its "increasingly strained relations with its neighbors", according to Forbes.

Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.

The European section of Turkey, eastern Thrace Turkish: It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbors Greece and Bulgaria. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates , Tigris and Aras.

Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions: The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.

The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea.

The North Anatolian Fault Line runs across the north of the country from west to east, along which major earthquakes took place in history.

The number of animal species in the whole of Europe is around 60,, while in Turkey there are over 80, over , counting the subspecies.

The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range.

The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk , golden eagle , eastern imperial eagle , lesser spotted eagle , Caucasian black grouse , red-fronted serin , and wallcreeper.

Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Ankara , the capital of Turkey, is renowned for the Angora cat , Angora rabbit and Angora goat. Another national cat breed of Turkey is the Van cat.

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate , with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.

The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters.

Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.

Winters on the eastern part of the plateau are especially severe. The driest regions are the Konya Plain and the Malatya Plain , where annual rainfall is often less than millimetres 12 inches.

May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest. Turkey has a sizeable automotive industry , which produced over 1.

Turkish shipyards have 15 floating docks of different sizes and one dry dock. Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields.

Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry.

In , the agricultural sector accounted for 9 percent of GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 26 percent and the services sector for 65 percent.

During the first six decades of the republic, between and , Turkey generally adhered to a quasi- statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade , flow of foreign currency , foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields such as broadcasting , telecommunications , energy , mining , etc.

The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in , following the earthquake in Izmit that year , [] and ; [] resulting in an average of 4 percent GDP growth per annum between and Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.

The real GDP growth rate from to averaged 6. However, growth slowed to 1 percent in , and in the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis , with a recession of 5 percent.

The economy was estimated to have returned to 8 percent growth in Tourism in Turkey has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy.

At its height in , Turkey attracted around 42 million foreign tourists, ranking as the 6th most popular tourist destination in the world.

In there were 98 airports in Turkey , [] including 22 international airports. As of [update] , the country has a roadway network of 65, kilometres 40, miles.

The Ankara-Konya line became operational in , while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges.

Over the past decades access to drinking water has become almost universal and access to adequate sanitation has also increased substantially.

Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision.

Intermittent supply, which was common in many cities, has become less frequent. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.

Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries , Aselsan , Havelsan , Roketsan , MKE , among others.

It consists of the construction of a spaceport , the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations.

According to the estimate, the population is increasing by 1. People within the 15—64 age group constitute Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition.

Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.

Minority groups other than the three religious minorities recognized in the Treaty of Lausanne Armenians , Greeks and Jews do not have any official rights, and the use of minority languages is restricted.

The official language is Turkish , which is the most widely spoken Turkic language in the world. Religion in Turkey [].

Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion ; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. The role of religion in public life has been a controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties.

However, the ban was lifted from universities in , from government buildings in , [] from schools in , [] and from the Armed Forces in After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire the number of Muslims in the region that became Turkey increased relative to the Christian population as Ottoman Muslims, who were facing extermination or other forms of repression in the newly constituted Balkan states, emigrated to the country.

Other Turks and Circassians fleeing Russian expansion in areas like the Caucasus and the Crimea also arrived during this period.

By the s, Islam had become the majority religion. According to the government, There are also some Sufi Muslims. Christianity has a long history in present-day Turkey, which is the birthplace of numerous Christian Apostles and Saints , such as Paul of Tarsus , Timothy , Nicholas of Myra , Polycarp of Smyrna and many others.

Saint Peter founded one of the first churches in Antioch Antakya , the location of which is regarded by tradition as the spot where he first preached the Gospel , and where the followers of Jesus were called Christians for the first time in history.

The house where Virgin Mary lived the final days of her life until her Assumption according to Catholic doctrine or Dormition according to Orthodox belief , [] [] and the tomb of John the Apostle who accompanied her during the voyage to Anatolia after the crucifixion of Jesus , are in Ephesus.

The cave churches in Cappadocia were among the hiding places of early Christians during the Roman persecutions against them. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from Today there are more than , people of different Christian denominations , representing less than 0.

The Sephardi Jews who were expelled from the Iberian peninsula and southern Italy under the control of the Spanish Empire were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire between the lateth and midth centuries.

Despite emigration during the 20th century , modern-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population. Recent polls suggest that 4.

The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. As of , there are universities in Turkey.

In , the quota of admitted students was ,, compared to 1,, who took the higher education exam in In the theory of evolution was removed from the national curriculum in favour of teaching on the concept of jihad.

Health care in Turkey used to be dominated by a centralised state system run by the Ministry of Health. In , the government introduced a sweeping health reform programme aimed at increasing the ratio of private to state health provision and making healthcare available to a larger share of the population.

Turkish Statistical Institute announced that In , life expectancy was Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic , Anatolian , Ottoman which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today.

This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.

Turkish painting , in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. The very first painting lessons were scheduled at what is now the Istanbul Technical University then the Imperial Military Engineering School in , mostly for technical purposes.

Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Pasha. The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe.

Carpet weaving represents a traditional art, dating back to pre-Islamic times. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions.

Traces of Byzantine design can be detected, Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdic tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs.

The arrival of Islam and the development of the Islamic art also influenced Turkish carpet design. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of the area of Asia minor.

However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition.

Turkish miniature is an art form, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. The words taswir or nakish were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish.

The studios the artists worked in were called Nakkashanes. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts.

The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture.

They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, resembling more illustrations rather than standalone works of art.

Several recipes in the text are accredited to this master. Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi died is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these claims.

Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as "Hatip" designs in Turkey today. Turkish literature is a mix of cultural influences.

Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.

The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years and Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk , recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

The origin of Turkish theatre dates back thousands of years to ancient pagan rituals. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated.

These rituals later became theatrical shows. In the 10th century, a blend of traditions occurred between the Seljuk Turks and those of the inhabitants of Anatolia.

The interaction between the various tribal societies paved the way for new plays. After the Tanzimat Reformation period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernized and plays were performed on European-style stages with the actors wearing European costumes.

Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in , theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected in the theatre as well as in historical plays.

Some wrote on romantic subjects, others were interested in social problems and still others dealt with nationalistic themes.

There were even those who wrote musicals. Today, theatre acts are performed by numerous private theatre companies and subsidized companies such as the Turkish State Theatres.

Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music , Arabic music , Greek music , Ottoman music , Persian music and Balkan music , as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.

The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences.

Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded.

Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek , Armenian , Albanian , Polish and Jewish communities, among others.

Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles.

Despite this however, western-style music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 70s and 80s. It became popular again by the beginning of the s, as a result of an opening economy and society.

With the support of Sezen Aksu , the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener.

The late s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock , electronica , hip-hop , rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial.

Turkey has a diverse folkloric dance culture. The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian , Arab , Armenian and Byzantine architecture.

The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa , which was the capital of the Ottoman State between and Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Istanbul in , Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture.

He was the chief architect of at least buildings which were constructed in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia.

The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.

Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript.

His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil , sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples.

The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa , used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world.

By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1, live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food.

Since the fall of the empire in World War I — and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in , foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.

The most popular sport in Turkey is association football soccer. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular.

The basketballing team is one of the most successful in the Mediterranean Games. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.

They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use all make up a very vibrant media industry in Turkey.

Of those licensed, 16 television and 36 radio stations reached national audiences. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available.

Despite legal provisions, media freedom in Turkey has steadily deteriorated from onwards, with a precipitous decline following the attempted coup in July Ranking 1st in the world, all of them facing anti-state charges, in the wake of an unprecedented crackdown that has included the shuttering of more than news outlets.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length. See the Manual of Style on use of images.

Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article is about the country. For the bird, see Turkey bird.

For other uses, see Turkey disambiguation. Country spanning Western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Republic in Western Asia.

Turkish Kurmanji Arabic Zaza Kabardian various others. Turks Kurds Arabs Laz various others. History of Anatolia and History of Thrace.

Prehistory of Anatolia and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe. Ancient Anatolians , Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia , and Thracians.

The gymnasium of Sardis , capital of ancient Lydia c. Classical Anatolia and Hellenistic period. Designed by Greek architect Zeno, a native of the city, the Aspendos amphitheatre was built during the Roman period in — CE.

Mount Nemrut , sometimes called the masoleum of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene , is notable for its summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.

Early Christianity and Byzantine Anatolia. Successors of the Byzantine Empire and States in late medieval Anatolia.

Seljuk dynasty and Ottoman dynasty. History of the Republic of Turkey. Administrative divisions of Turkey.

Human rights in Turkey. Judicial system of Turkey and Law enforcement in Turkey. Foreign relations of Turkey. Defense industry of Turkey.

Flora and vegetation of Turkey and Wildlife of Turkey. Environmental issues in Turkey. Turkish currency and debt crisis, Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe.

Economic history of Turkey. Science and technology in Turkey. Turkish people , Minorities in Turkey , and Turkification. List of high schools in Turkey and List of universities in Turkey.

Health care in Turkey. List of hospitals in Turkey. Arts in Turkey , Turkish folklore , and Festivals in Turkey.

Turkish literature and Theatre of Turkey. Turkish dance and Music of Turkey. Turkish classical music , Turkish folk music , and Turkish music style.

Turkish folk dancers at the annual Chicago Turkish Festival []. Byzantine architecture , Seljuk architecture , and Ottoman architecture. The Grand Post Office — in Istanbul and the first Ziraat Bank headquarters — in Ankara are among the examples of Turkish Neoclassical architecture in the early 20th century.

An layer dough baklava. Media in Turkey and Cinema of Turkey. Turkey portal Mediterranean portal. We will never accept the accusations of genocide".

Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic, was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations.

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Bianet — Frindscaut Iletisim Agi. Archived from the tt nord on 15 July It consists of the construction of a spaceportthe wette augsburg of satellite launch live real bayern as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. There are also some Sufi Muslims. The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 November Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces il or vilayet for administrative purposes. Stephen; Lesser, Ian O. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck At its height inTurkey attracted around 42 million foreign tourists, ranking as the 6th most popular tourist destination in the world. Retrieved 9 August Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the EuphratesTigris and Aras. Retrieved 15 June

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